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Dominant bulls are intolerant of spike bulls and will chase them away from their harems. Bulls have a loud, high-pitched, whistle-like vocalization known as bugling , which advertise the male's fitness over great distances.
Unusual for a vocalization produced by a large animal, buglings can reach a frequency of Hz. This is achieved by blowing air from the glottis through the nasal cavities.
Elk can produce deeper pitched Hz sounds using the larynx. Female elk have a short estrus cycle of only a day or two, and matings usually involve a dozen or more attempts.
When the females are near to giving birth, they tend to isolate themselves from the main herd, and will remain isolated until the calf is large enough to escape predators.
After two weeks, calves are able to join the herd, and are fully weaned at two months of age. Males disperse more often than females, as adult cows are more tolerant of female offspring from previous years.
In some subspecies that suffer less predation, they may live an average of 15 years in the wild. As is true for many species of deer, especially those in mountainous regions, elk migrate into areas of higher altitude in the spring, following the retreating snows, and the opposite direction in the fall.
Hunting pressure also impacts migration and movements. Elk do not appear to benefit from thermal cover. Elk in the southern regions of Yellowstone National Park and in the surrounding National Forests migrate south towards the town of Jackson, Wyoming , where they winter for up to six months on the National Elk Refuge.
Conservationists there ensure the herd is well fed during the harsh winters. Elk are ruminants and therefore have four-chambered stomachs.
Unlike white-tailed deer and moose, which are primarily browsers, elk are similar to cattle in that they are primarily grazers. But like other deer, they also browse.
Their diets vary somewhat depending on the season, with native grasses being a year-round supplement, tree bark being consumed in winter and forbs and tree sprouts during the summer.
Elk consume an average of 9. Predators of elk include wolves , coyotes , brown and black bears, cougars , and Siberian tigers.
Elk may also avoid predation by switching from grazing to browsing, the former of which puts itself in a compromising situation of being in such an open area with its head down, leaving it unable to see what is going on in the surrounding area.
Large bull elk are less vulnerable and thus can afford to wander alone, while cows stay in larger groups for protection for their calves.
At least 53 species of protist and animal parasites have been identified in elk. Parelaphostrongylus tenuis brainworm or meningeal worm is a parasitic nematode known to affect the spinal cord and brain tissue of elk and other species, leading to death.
Snails and slugs, the intermediate hosts, can be inadvertently consumed by elk during grazing. Chronic wasting disease , transmitted by a misfolded protein known as a prion , affects the brain tissue in elk, and has been detected throughout their range in North America.
First documented in the late s in mule deer, the disease has affected elk on game farms and in the wild in a number of regions. Elk that have contracted the disease begin to show weight loss, changes in behavior, increased watering needs, excessive salivation and urinating and difficulty swallowing, and at an advanced stage, the disease leads to death.
No risks to humans have been documented, nor has the disease been demonstrated to pose a threat to domesticated cattle. The Gram-negative bacterial disease brucellosis occasionally affects elk in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, the only place in the U.
In domesticated cattle, brucellosis causes infertility, abortions, and reduced milk production. It is transmitted to humans as undulant fever , producing influenza -like symptoms that may last for years.
Though bison are more likely to transmit the disease to other animals, elk inadvertently transmitted brucellosis to horses in Wyoming and cattle in Idaho.
Researchers are attempting to eradicate the disease through vaccinations and herd-management measures, which are expected to be successful.
A recent necropsy study of captive elk in Pennsylvania attributed the cause of death in 33 of 65 cases to either gastrointestinal parasites 21 cases, primarily Eimeria sp.
Elk hoof disease was first noticed in the state of Washington in the late s in the Cowlitz River basin, with sporadic reports of deformed hooves.
Since then, the disease has spread rapidly with increased sightings throughout southwest Washington and into Oregon.
The disease is characterised by deformed, broken, or missing hooves and leads to severe lameness in elk. The primary cause is not known, but it is associated with treponeme bacteria, which are known to cause digital dermatitis in commercial livestock.
The mode of transmission is also not known, but it appears to be highly contagious among elk. Studies are being undertaken by government departments to determine how to halt or eliminate the disease.
Modern subspecies are descended from elk that once inhabited Beringia , a steppe region between Asia and North America that connected the two continents during the Pleistocene.
Beringia provided a migratory route for numerous mammal species, including brown bear , camel , horse , caribou , and moose, as well as humans. In North America they adapted to almost all ecosystems except for tundra , true deserts, and the gulf coast of the U.
The elk of southern Siberia and central Asia were once more widespread but today are restricted to the mountain ranges west of Lake Baikal including the Sayan and Altai Mountains of Mongolia and the Tianshan region that borders Kyrgyzstan , Kazakhstan , and China's Xinjiang Province.
During the Late Pleistocene their range was much more extensive, being distributed across Eurasia, with remains being found as far west as France.
These populations are most closely related to modern Asian populations of the elk. Their range collapsed at the start of the Holocene, due to them being specialized to cold periglacial tundrasteppe habitat, which was largely replaced with closed forest, being outcompeted by red deer in these conditions.
Relictual populations survived into the early Holocene in southern Sweden and the Alps, where the environment remained favorable. The Rocky Mountain elk subspecies has been reintroduced by hunter-conservation organizations in the Appalachian region of the eastern U.
Outside their native habitat, elk and other deer species, especially white-tailed deer , were introduced in areas that previously had few, if any, large native ungulates.
Brought to these countries for hunting and ranching for meat, hides and antler velvet, they have proven highly adaptable and have often had an adverse impact on local ecosystems.
Elk and red deer were introduced to Argentina in the early 20th century. The introduction of deer to New Zealand began in the middle of the 19th century, and current populations are primarily European red deer, with only 15 percent being elk.
These deer have had an adverse impact on forest regeneration of some plant species, as they consume more palatable species which are replaced with those that are less favored by the elk.
The long-term impact will be an alteration of the types of plants and trees found, and in other animal and plant species dependent upon them.
Elk have played an important role in the cultural history of a number of peoples. Neolithic petroglyphs from Asia depict antler-less female elk, which have been interpreted as symbolizing life and sustenance.
They were also frequently overlaid with boats and associated with rivers, suggesting that they also represented paths to the underworld.
The male elk was admired for its ability to attract mates and Lakota men will play a courting flute imitating a bugling elk to attract women.
Men would like use elk antlers as love charms and wore clothes decorated with elk images. The Rocky Mountain elk is the official state animal for Utah.
A representation of the majestic head of the male, with its spreading antlers, was adopted as the first badge of the Order; and is still the most conspicuous element of its copyrighted fraternal emblem.
Although breakdown figures for each game species are not available in the National Survey from the U. Fish and Wildlife Service, hunting of wild elk is most likely the primary economic impact.
While elk are not generally harvested for meat production on a large scale, some restaurants offer the meat as a specialty item and it is also available in some grocery stores.
The meat has a taste somewhere between beef and venison and is higher in protein and lower in fat and cholesterol than beef, pork, and chicken.
Velvet is also considered by some cultures to be an aphrodisiac. Antlers are also used in artwork, furniture and other novelty items.
All Asian subspecies, along with other deer, have been raised for their antlers in central and eastern Asia by Han Chinese , Turkic peoples , Tungusic peoples , Mongolians , and Koreans.
Elk farms are relatively common in North America and New Zealand. Since , the Boy Scouts of America have assisted employees at the National Elk Refuge in Wyoming by collecting the antlers which are shed each winter.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Elk Cervus canadensis. This article is about the species called "elk" in North America.
For the species called "elk" in Eurasia Alces alces , see Moose. For other uses of the names, see Elk disambiguation and Wapiti disambiguation.
Large antlered species of deer from North America and east Asia. Temporal range: 2. Conservation status. Erxleben , .
An American elk bugling. Mammals portal. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 9 September Pennsylvania Game Commission.
Retrieved The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Retrieved 23 December In Wilson, D. M eds. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference 3rd ed.
Johns Hopkins University Press. August Land Mammals of Oregon. University of California. University of California, Berkeley. Archived from the original on Nader, I.
Retrieved 7 Dec Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. Deer of the World: Their Evolution, Behavior, and Ecology.
However, Raf activation does not exclusively depend on Ras. Protein kinase C, which is activated by phorbol esters , can fulfill the same function as Ras.
After stimulation of Elk1, SRF, which allows Elk1 to bind to the c-fos promoter, must be recruited. The binding of Elk1 to SRF happens due to protein-protein interaction between the B domain of Elk1 and SRF and the protein-DNA interaction via the A domain.
The aforementioned proteins are like recipes for a certain signaling output. If one of these ingredients, such as SRF, is missing, then a different output occurs.
In this case, lack of SRF leads to Elk1's activation of another gene. When studying signaling pathways, mutations can further highlight the importance of each component used to activate the downstream target.
For instance, disruption of the C-terminal domain of Elk1 that MAPK phosphorylates triggers inhibition of c-fos activation. Formation of long-term memory may be dependent on Elk1.
MEK inhibitors block Elk1 phosphorylation and, thus, impair acquired conditioned taste aversion. Moreover, avoidance learning , which involves the subject learning that a particular response leads to prevention of an aversive stimulus, is correlated with a definite increase in activation of Erk, Elk1, and c-fos in the hippocampus.
This area of the brain is involved in short-term and long-term information storage. When Elk1 or SRF binding to DNA is blocked in the rat hippocampus, only sequestration of SRF interferes with long-term spatial memory.
While the interaction of Elk1 with DNA may not be essential for memory formation, its specific role still needs to be explored. This is because activation of Elk1 can trigger other molecular events that do not require Elk1 to bind DNA.
For example, Elk1 is involved in the phosphorylation of histones , increased interaction with SRF, and recruitment of the basal transcriptional machinery, all of which do not require direct binding of Elk1 to DNA.
Elk1 activation plays a central role in drug addiction. After mice are given cocaine , a strong and momentary hyperphosphorylation of Erk and Elk1 is observed in the striatum.
When these mice are then given MEK inhibitors , Elk1 phosphorylation is absent. Without active Elk1, c-fos production and cocaine-induced conditioned place preference are shown to be blocked.